Chinese ancient legends and figures 11: Zhuang Tzu a sage and book

Chinese ancient legends and figures 11: Zhuang Tzu a sage and book

Its time for legendary figures and deeds again. This time I will speak about Zhuangtzu or Zhuang Zhou. He was one of first most famous Daoist masters and one of most famous sages and philosophers of ancient China. Zhuangtzu has left a work of great importance for Chinese philosophy and Daoist teaching known as Zhuangzi a collection of short anecdotes and stories about sense of life, death, nature, balance with nature, human relations, harmony and Dao.

According to ancient historian Sima Qian (145BC-86BC) and his records Zhuangtzu lived between 369BC and 286BC. Only little is known about his life from Records of Grand Historian. It is only known that he was born in city of Meng  of Kingdom of Song. Today this is Henan province. Zhuang was minor official in his hometown but was famous for Daoist thoughts and writing short anecdotes. King Wei of Chu have heard about him and wanted to admit him in state service on position of chief minister. Despite power and wealth that he could get he rejected it politely saying that he is more happy with simple life. That is basically all what is known about life of this great philosopher.

chuangtzu
Painting of Master Zhuang, https://teethfeetandfingers.wordpress.com/2015/12/03/chuang-tzu/

Zhuang Zhou has left great collection of Daoist anecdotes about philosophy and life known as Zhuangzi. Zhuangzi book is second most important Daoist book after Dao De Qing inspired by Lao Tzu. Zhuangzi is together with Dao De Qing part of Daoist Cannon- Daozang. Current compilation dates from 3rd century CE based on originals. This classic hasn’t left only great impact on perception of life, perception of nature, perception of natural statics and dynamics  and lifestyle of other Daoist masters. But this book became great inspiration of Chinese poetry, painting and Chinese culture and lifestyle generally. Since Dao De Qing is often considered as too abstract and simple book this one is seen as application of Dao De Qing and application of Daoist philosophy in practice and pushes you to think even more. This book will push you to think about your own existence, natural phenomena, statics and dynamics in nature, relativity and universality in our world. Zhuangzi emphasizes on nature as perfect example where things go simply and slightly without too much attachment and need of questioning. Simply it shows that everything is either static like mountains or dynamic like water or air. It also shows as life in a bit satiric, comedic and even ironic way. Zhuangzi shows self ironizing of all existence and life of its author too. When there are some things which are changeable and some things unchangeable it is better to simply perceive life with joy and do not worry.

bamboo-zhujian1
Old manuscripts on bamboo, https://baopu81.wordpress.com/2012/08/05/classical-daoism-is-there-really-such-a-thing-part-3/

Book teaches you how to easier do things which you can do such as to be simple and happy, to strive for success and change some things to better which you can do by doing good and living in harmony with nature and people. Zhuangzi appreciates  moderate effort, wisdom, modesty,  unconditional love, joy in simple things and similar values. While at the same time  Zhuangzi teaches how to stand necessary bad moments and things which you cannot change, how to overcome them and go further in life without too much worrying. Even if you worry you wont change some natural things like periodic unhappiness and necessary death.  Zhuangzi appreciates flexibility and need to adapt to new circumstances and use them best but not to go against flow of river. Book also condemns greed, over confidence, too much pride and stupidity.  In book also grand rituals are condemned as sage considered that they are waste of time, money and energy. Sage believed that unnecessary things are large celebrations of life and too much mourning for death and grand funeral rituals. He believed that both life and death are natural sides of one coin and natural cycle of changes which occurs among all living beings and doesn’t require too much attention. Zhuangzi relativizes perceptions and whole existence, but says that generally everything is part of universe and path-Dao. Example of this is butterfly dilemma which says that Zhuangtzu  dreams about butterfly questions whether he is old man who dreams that he is butterfly or he is a butterfly which dreams that he is old man. Shortly Zhuangzi speaks that relativity of all things unites all things under Dao. Zhuangzi says that everything in world is not ultimate good or evil that everything good has some bad and everything bad has something good. World and nature are in constant transformation which has no beginning neither end.  Dao according to Zhuangzi has no shape neither beginning neither end. Universal Dao is composed of all relative circumstances and transformations. Thus Zhuangzi emphasizes on harmony between self and nature and thus spontaneous life is lived equally to spontaneity of Dao.  In other words living spontaneously and linking your mind to nature and changes of nature you live in harmony with Dao.

zhuang happ
Source: http://izquotes.com/quote/204483

To better understand this book here are 3 stories from this amazing work. Read them and think about their point on your own.

Man of Tao

The man in whom Tao

Acts without impediment

Harms no other being

By his actions

Yet he does not know himself

To be “kind,” to be “gentle.”

The man in whom Tao

Acts without impediment

Does not bother with his own interests

And does not despise

Others who do.

He does not struggle to make money

And does not make a virtue of poverty.

He goes his way

Without relying on others

And does not pride himself

On walking alone.

While he does not follow the crowd

He won’t complain of those who do.

Rank and reward

Make no appeal to him;

Disgrace and shame

Do not deter him.

He is not always looking

For right and wrong

Always deciding “Yes” or “No.”

The ancients said, therefore:

“The man of Tao

Remains unknown

Perfect virtue

Produces nothing

‘No-Self’

Is ‘True-Self.’

And the greatest man

Is Nobody.”

Source: https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/MertonChuangTzu.pdf

 

The Joy of Fishes

Chuang Tzu and Hui Tzu

Were crossing Hao river

By the dam.

Chuang said:

“See how free

The fishes leap and dart:

That is their happiness.”

Hui replied:

“Since you are not a fish

How do you know

What makes fishes happy?”

Chuang said:

“Since you are not I

How can you possibly know

That I do not know

What makes fishes happy?”

Hui argued:

“If I, not being you,

Cannot know what you know

It follows that you

Not being a fish

Cannot know what they know.”

Chuang said:

“Wait a minute!

Let us get back

To the original question.

  • what you asked me was

‘How do you know

What makes fishes happy?’

From the terms of your question

You evidently know I know

What makes fishes happy.

“I know the joy of fishes

In the river

Through my own joy, as I go walking

Along the same river.”

Source: https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/MertonChuangTzu.pdf

 

 

 

The Need to Win

When an archer is shooting for nothing

He has all his skill.

If he shoots for a brass buckle

He is already nervous.

If he shoots for a prize of gold

He goes blind

Or sees two targetsHe

is out of his mind!

His skill has not changed. But the prize

Divides him. He cares.

He thinks more of winning

Than of shooting

And

the need to win

Drains him of power.

Source: https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/MertonChuangTzu.pdf

zhuangtzu beaut i rott
Source:  http://izquotes.com/quote/204483

Sources:

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zhuangzi

https://terebess.hu/zen/mesterek/MertonChuangTzu.pdf

cover photo source: https://www.wallpapersafari.com/koi-fish-wallpapers/

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Chinese ancient legends and figures 10- Mythological and folklore creatures of China

Chinese ancient legends and figures 10- Mythological and folklore creatures of China

Legendary beings in Chinese mythology is special topic which needs special attention. There are more than thousand of humanlike or animallike deities and beings. There are also half human half animal beings like Fu Xi about which I wrote already. I wrote about few humanlike deities too, but there are some which look like fictional animals such as dragons, phoenixes and some other less known.

Today we are going to review some of these mythological beings. Most famous and most important and probably the oldest Chinese mythological being is dragon. Chinese people consider themselves as descendants of dragon. I have written about dragons, their symbolic meaning and 1 legend about 4 Dragons in chapter 2 of legends and ancient figures. So if you want to revise knowledge about dragons check it please. Here we continue with other creatures.

Phoenix

If not of the same importance as dragon than it is second most important mythological creature in China.  Phoenix is symbol of yin, fire, beauty, statics, femininity, Chinese empress and good fortune. . Its major element is fire while dragons is water. Dragon and phoenix are often see as dual, compatible and equal contradictory but balanced forces. Dragon is symbol of yang, masculinity,  flexibility,  water, emperor and good fortune.  Dragon and phoenix are seen as symbol of balanced relationship, ideal love and happy marriage. In past their amulets were worn by couples and their paintings or other decorations which depict dragon and phoenix were used on weddings. Today still their depiction is common on weddings because people consider that their image can bring harmonized energy into relationship and marriage. Some young couples were their symbols on bracelets or necklaces for good luck and harmony in relationship. From this concept it is perceived that ancient Chinese thought equalized men and women.

drag and pho

4 Divine Beasts

Are beasts of yin and yang and 4 directions.

  • Azure Dragon

Is symbol of east, spring and wood element.

  • Black Turtle

Represents water, north and winter.

  • Vermillion Bird

Represents fire, summer and south.

  • White Tiger

Symbol of autumn, west and metal.

  • Yellow Dragon as 5th

Often considered as fifth divine beast and symbol of earth, center and transformation.

 

china-mythological-symbols
source:http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/four-mythological-symbols-china-001792

Qilin

Is one of most important mythological beings. He is  famous for being messenger of big changes such as birth or death of great leader or ruler. Qilin is symbol of benevolence, wisdom and purity. Qilin can throw out fire to fight the evil.

Qilin-of-Chinese-mythology
source:http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/gentle-and-benevolent-qilin-chinese-mythology-001933

Pixiu

Is half dragon half lion who with wings. Pixiu is symbol of wealth and good fortune.

Sun Wukong

Is one of most famous legendary beings of China. He is half monkey half human. Sun Wukong is also known as Monkey King. He is famous for great intelligence, diplomatic arts but also a bit foolish behavior. Sun Wukong is a bit rebellious and doesn’t obey much the authorities. This figure originates from Warring States Period( 476-221BC). He cultivates Daoist teaching and principles and is immortal as well.. Monkey King is great martial artist and more about his story can be read in Journey to the West a 16th century novel. He is one of main characters there so if you are interested read the novel.

Sun_Wukong_at_Beijing_opera_-_Journey_to_the_West
source:https://www.flickr.com/photos/fukagawa/111296853/

Dragon King

Is most powerful Chinese dragon. He is dragon of water and weather and 4 Dragons are his incarnations.  Dragon King has 9 son dragons.

Jade Rabbit

Is a symbol of moon. According to legend he lives with Chang E( goddess of Moon) on Moon.

Xiezhi

Is a combination of unicorn and dragon. Xiezhi is famous for judging on right or wrong and chasing evil away.

 Hou

Is a lion with long ears. Hou is famous for loud roar and bringing messages from Heaven to Earth.

Guardian lions

Represent male and female, yin and yang. Are always in pairs and are considered as guardians of houses, palaces and temples. Therefore stone lion guardians are often in front of houses, palaces and temples.

Fox Spirit

Is a fox which has magical skills such as to transform into beautiful women to seduce men.

Hungry ghosts

Are ghosts of passed away people who are forgotten by their descendants. Thus they constantly search for food. It will be more about them in chapter about Hungry ghost festival.

Bifang

Is a bird which looks like crane and has red beak and only one leg. It eats fire. Appearance of Bifang is symbol of fire disaster.

bifang
source:https://immortalmountain.wordpress.com/glossary/chinese-bestiary/

 Mogui

Are demons which reproduce on rain and attack humans.

Jiangshi

Are resurrected dead people who seek for live and healthy humans to kill them and steal their qi energy. Jiangshi are some kind of equivalent to vampire.

chinesevampire
source:http://www.ancientpages.com/2016/01/12/jiangshi-terrifying-ancient-chinese-vampire-in-disguise/

Diao Si Gui

Are ghosts of those who committed suicide by hanging. They have long tongues stretched out of mouth.

Ying Ling

Are ghosts of dead fetuses.

Gui Bo

An old witch

Nu Gui

Is a women dressed in red who has committed suicide and now is resurrected and searches someone who committed injustice towards her and takes revenge.

nu gui female ghost
source:http://blog.tutorming.com/expats/chinese-monsters-and-ghosts-culture

4 friends

Are four evil beings being exiled by Emperor Shun in order to create stability on Earth.

Taowu

Symbol of ignorance. Looks like boar.

Qiongqi

Looks like winged tiger and eats humans and causes wars.

Hundun

Is a faceless dog and attacks humans of virtue.

Taotie

Is symbol of greed and eats everything even its own body.

Sources:

 

https://immortalmountain.wordpress.com/glossary/chinese-bestiary/

http://www.chinawhisper.com/top-10-chinese-mythical-creatures/  https://china-underground.com/2016/04/09/demons-monsters-ghosts-of-the-chinese-folklore/

http://www.lazerhorse.org/2016/11/13/tianzi-mountain-china/ cover photo source

Chinese ancient legends and figures 9- Lao Tzu, a myth or reality?

Chinese ancient legends and figures 9- Lao Tzu, a myth or reality?

This time I wont write details about Taoism and values deeply but I will speak about basic ideas of Lao Tzu, his life and his core ideas. Lao Tzu alongside Confucius is biggest Chinese philosopher. It cannot be determined who is more important of these two great people. While Confucius was busy with concept of state, society and social norms Lao Tzu was busy about living in harmony with nature and  observing natural changes. He was also thinking about how people should live in harmony with each other and nature and how people should perceive happiness, changes, sadness and how to deal with challenges. Basically was searching meaning of life and giving a meaning to it.

3 th

What is even more interesting is that no one is completely sure about existence of Lao Tzu and most details about his life. Most of historians believe that Lao Tzu lived between 601BC  and 531BC.  Its known very little about his life actually. There are many different and contradictory stories about his life which are very unclear and brief. Even most famous Chinese ancient historian Sima Qian  145BC-86BC) didn’t leave one conceptualized story about Lao Tzu but several shorter often not completely reliable. It is believed that Lao Tzu was born in state of Chu, in  present day  Luoyi Henan province. His real name was Li. Er while  Lao Tzu actually means Old Master. There is legend that he was held in mothers womb for 62 years and that he was born with long beard and large eyebrows or in other words old and wise. Other legends suggest that he lived for 129 years.  There are suggestions that he worked as historian or librarian on royal court of Zhou dynasty in Luoyang. Records of Sima Qian suggest that Lao Tzu was married and had one son Zong who later became legendary warrior.

Some parts of Records of Sima Qian state that he  had few followers while other parts say that he didn’t have any followers before he went to west. It is stated that he travelled a lot observed nature, visited many villages and towns where he was both learning but also teaching wisdoms. There is also an unreliable story that he once met with Confucius and that they spoke to each other in respectful way despite  differences in ideas of these two philosophers. According to Records of Grand Historian Lao Tzu told Confucius that he should be more flexible and spontaneous and less ambitious.  While Confucius told him that he perceives Lao Tzu as dragon which rides over sky with wind and clouds.

 

Now even more  mysterious thing is where Lao Tzu left and whether he left at all. In some writings of Sima Qian Lao Tzu was becoming more and more disappointed by ignorance of people and hard life during Spring and Autumn Period. Lao Tzu was also disappointed with moral decline of various rulers and often wars between states for their dominance and recognition by Zhou court. Also there are suggestions that he wanted to observe and discover harmony, nature and Tao deeper without interruption.  It is often suggested that he didn’t get single disciple and was sad that people don’t want to live according to natural goodness. There is also possibility that he went with the flow, followed his Tao and wanted to live in harmony with all  statics and dynamics in nature and Tao. Simply it can be said that he went to observe stillness of mountains and flexibility of rivers without interruption.  According to story he took an ox and was riding him towards west from  Zhou capital Luoyang.

Legend says that he wanted to leave some trace before he disappears and left the collection of his wisdoms to the border security guard. While getting out of city at western gate Lao Tzu was noticed by one of guards. Lao Tzu was stopped by one of guards. Guard told that his name is Yin Xi and that he recognized Lao Tzu and wants to be his disciple. Lao Tzu wanted to test his devotion and asked about his life. Yin Xi told him that he was interested in astronomy and in all processes of nature, 5 elements and living with virtue. Thus Lao Tzu got sure that he is truly devoted to Tao and that he respects 3 virtues of Lao Tzu. According to legend Lao Tzu still decided to leave but ordained Yin Xi as his disciple. Instead of mentoring him Lao Tzu left him on a bamboo slips his main wisdoms what became known as Tao Te Qing. Lao Tzu went without a trace to the west riding and ox.  This action can be perfectly seen as example of Wu Wei.

lao-tzu-riding-an-ox
Lao Tzu riding an ox

Further according to legend Yin Xi followed the Tao and preserved and rewrote Tao Te Qing several times and was speaking teaching of Lao Tzu to the people.  He left more followers than his teacher Lao Tzu. If we follow this story there were more and more Taoist individuals and smaller movements until 2nd century CE.

Significance of Lao Tzu is very big. Lao Tzu was core person in conceptualizing Taoist teaching. Lao Tzu collected previous ideas about nature, worship, way of living and called it Dao or Tao.  It can be translated as Way. Tao Te Qing is collection of his main ideas and views on nature, time, actions, love, competition, spirituality, astronomy, mind, body,  morality, justice,  contrasts and their balance, harmony with nature, power of mind, balance between people in way of harmony,  and many other things. All this things mentioned above and concept of yin yang were systematized by Lao Tzu existed long before in traditional Chinese spirituality, shamanism and astronomy.  Lao Tzu named this teaching as Tao meaning way. Tao Te Qing can be translated as Classic Way of Virtue.

Lao

Lao Tzu updated this concept with concept of Wuji and Taiji. Wuji is considered as eternal space and eternal emptiness that is everywhere around us. Wuji represents constant stillness, non changes and statics. Second is Taiji which is translated as supreme ultimate. It is something that  constantly changes, moves, circles and is constantly flexible. Taiji is constant change of day and night, winter and summer, spring and autumn, good and bad, flowing water, rain and sun,  beautiful and ugly, new and old, love and hate…It is considered that Taiji is name for all relative things and that nothing is absolute that there is thin line between all contrary things.  Wuji and Taiji together give a Yin Yang which symbolizes contradictious harmony as I spoke before.   Yin symbolizes- night, woman, moon, earth, passive, evil and yang symbolizes-  day, man, sun, heaven, active, good. Lao Tzu also added his main virtues to Tao Te Qing such as are simplicity( spontaneity, no competing, wisdom, tranquility, peaceful mind,) , patience( stillness) and compassion( kindness).  He considers Tao as Way with no name and no shape but that it can be personified in way of harmony and path of wisdom. Also Lao Tzu added famous concept of Wu Wei.

1283062999-love-quotes-lao-tzu-5598

Systematized Taoism and its followers during this period still didn’t function as organized association but several centuries later. Later it became organized and systematized teaching only by middle of 2nd century CE.  It never became official state philosophy but  was widely respected by various dynasties mostly by Han, Tang Song and Ming. Taoism deeply influenced life of people. Lao Tzu definitely left great significance on Chinese people. Maybe not him directly but Tao Te Qing and inspired Taoist teaching on it. Taoism not only as a organized movement but as a spiritual concept and way of life had and has great impact on life, culture, arts, medicine, architecture, perception of life, relations between people, virtues, perception of nature, understanding changes and unchangeable things and much more. Together with Confucianism Taoism is core of minds and hearts of Chinese people, Chinese civilization and Chinese nation.  Maybe not Lao Tzu that much but inspiration by Tao Te Qing created Taoist movements.

 

Still existence of Lao Tzu and origin of Tao Te Qing is mystery as there are suggestions that he actually didn’t write it but that book was written by his followers and that its collection of things that he taught them. There are also ideas that Yin Xi wrote only what Lao Tzu was telling him. It is often believed that Tao Te Qing was a compilation of works of more philosophers who systematized Taoist ideas. Some think that they cooperated on it while others that even different contributors lived in different centuries. It is believed that they had in common that they were signing their works as Lao Tzu what means old master and that later misunderstanding appeared and people thought it was one person. Oldest found examples of Tao Te Qing were found only by late 4th century BC.  Some Taoist followers worship Lao Tzu as deity while in past some schools considered him as individual deity such as Way of Celestial Masters. Todays schools of Taoism Zhengyi and Quanzhen consider Lao Tzu as incarnation of Taishang Laojun one of 3 Pure Ones an important deities in Taoism.  Generally Taoists think that Lao Tzu is personification of Tao. Mostly Taoists do not worship Lao Tzu alone but he is considered as incarnation of 3 Pure Ones who are often worshiped together with other deities.

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Traces of  burial site of Lao Tzu do not exist as it was believed that he went to the West somewhere far completely alone. Some rare suggestions exist that he went to Tibet or India. During Han dynasty( 206BC-220CE) with arrival of Buddhism to China  via Silk Road some scholars thought that Lao Tzu actually went to India and that Buddha was his disciple. It was believed like that because of some similarity between two teachings. They believed that Buddha during his retreat met Lao Tzu in mountains who showed him the Tao. Even at beginning Buddha was considered  that he found Tao instead of term Buddhahood by Taoist scholars  Taoist scholars understood the best Buddhist teaching and using their terminology they were able to translate it to Chinese. Chinese version of Buddhism was created by Taoist adaptation. Chan( Zen) Buddhism appeared in 4th-5th century under influence of Taoism.

So its up to you to read, think and decide if Lao Tzu is myth or reality.

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Source: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Laozi

http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Philosophy/Taichi/lao.html

Chinese ancient figure 8- Confucius, a father of imperial China, education and social norms

Chinese ancient figure 8- Confucius, a father of imperial China, education and social norms

Here I want to focus on biography and life of Confucius and basically some ideas. Also I will focus on some aspects of his life that seem to be legend and a question of his existence.

His Chinese name is Kong Qiu and simply great man with great ideas. He lived during Spring and Autumn Period( 771BC-476BC) a period of formal supremacy of Zhou dynasty in terms of politics and culture while there was large division on many states who often were in rivalry relations and fought wars. Confucius was born  in state of Lu in Qufu in todays Shandong province in 551BC.  Confucius was born during rule of Duke Xiang of Lu. He became later known as Kongfuzi what means master Kong so from this name he is known as Confucius. Confucius never met his father as he died when he was only 3 years old. He originates from aristocratic family which was impoverished already by time of his birth.  His ancestry dates to house of Dukes of Song during Shang dynasty. At age of 15 he was learning classical six arts which were compulsory for scholars  of Zhou dynasty and those were rites, archery, music, calligraphy, charioteering and math. At age of 19 Confucius married with Qiguan. At age of 23 his mother died and he mourned for 3 years as was tradition saying.  First he tried to be governmental official and worked on some position, He served as magistrate and later as assistant in Ministry of Public Affairs. .Confucius later became Minister of Crime in state of Lu. At that time he was in mid 30ies and decided to become teacher  too and spread his ideas and education as he saw biggest value in education and spreading it.  By proposing his ethical and governmental ideas he was collecting some disciples. Confucius was trying to give education for more people and never took money from his disciples like at that time aristocratic families were paying tutors for their male kids. Confucius played role of diplomat too  in managing relations between rivalry dukes and tried to mediate conflict peacefully and was successful several times.

confucius

Confucius was successful at this and centralized power and restored order in state of Lu. But state of Qi tried to distract Duke of Lu by sending beautiful dancing girls. As legend says Duke didn’t attend governmental meetings for few days and Kong Zi was disappointed ad decided to leave the Lu because of lack of morality of duke for whom he served. At that time he was in his 40ties. Kongzi visited many of smaller and bigger states and visited courts there but dukes and kings listened only to his proposals. But never applied them so Confucius was always on road seeking for someone who will apply it and collected disciples on his way. Kongzi considered rituals, governance and music of Western Zhou as core for Chinese culture and state and these ideals he promoted and tried to apply in Lu and other states. Western Zhou was period when  state was united and before Spring and Autumn decentralization. Confucius was teaching his disciples all 6 arts, ethics and governance. At age of 68 he returned his home to state of Lu. Before that he climbed a Mount Taishan which was sacred at that time already. In his hometown he continued teaching most until his death. Confucius was very friendly towards his disciples used to joke but also demanded respect but respected them back too. His son and one of favorite disciples died early and he felt sorry for both of them. At age of 73 Confucius died in his hometown in 479BC As a highly respected person he was buried on grand ceremony and state mourning was declared. Kong  Zi was buried in his hometown Qufu and his tomb still can be visited and people come there to pay respect.

tomb of confucius qufu
Tomb of Confucius, Qufu, Shandong province

He believed that basis for happiness is ideal family in which younger give respect to older and women are submissive to men. From a basis of ideal family goes ideal harmonious society with hierarchy respect and where everyone knows its place and deserves place according to education and skills. Education, respect and harmonious relations are basis of society and everyone by self-cultivation improves his position in society. Kongzi believed that every human serves to society for a higher good and functioning of society. He also believed that following virtues, traditions and high education give you better status in society. Confucius is often seen as conservative person promoting old traditions, rituals and customs which keep unity of family and society. In keeping family tradition each family must worship its ancestors what brings family unity. Under ideals of Western Zhou which established concept Mandate of Heaven legitimacy of ruler must be based. He considered that ruler must worship Heaven in order to gets its blessing and govern under divine power. Confucius considered that state must be strong and ruler generous, powerful and ethical. He considered that highest positions could have only people with highest education and highest skills and virtue. He considered that each ruler and member of society must think about his own behavior, morality and educate himself in order of perfection. In order to get respect leader must be self-disciplined and to respect others too. He believed that you must be compassionate and positive to motivate others to follow law. By education he believed you can achieve higher status and respect in society and only if you have high morality and are self-disciplined.  Confucius idealized concept of 4 professions and their contribution to society. Hierarchy, respect, self-discipline are a must according to him. Confucius emphasized highly on worship of Heaven and ancestors and with aim to keep order worship must be highly detailed. Which chants and when, number of vessels and all steps of ritual had to be according to some order done. Kong Qui considered major arts: computing, calligraphy, music, ritual, archery and chariot driving. He believed that they require strict self-discipline and hard working and therefore are contributive. Confucius believed that such concept of state and organization of society leads to harmnonius society. He was against wars and believed that  justified war only in case of defense.  However despite his brilliant ideas there are some controversies related to Confucius such as misogynic  ideas and underestimating living beings. There is a story when he asks only about human lives when there was accident in which horseridrers were involved and behaves towards animals as towards property of human. Also sometimes his philosophy may seem to strict with lack of spontaneity and joy but some important ideas are definitely serving functioning of society.

2013-06-21 11.03.19
statue of Confucius in Confucius Temple, Beijing

He never left book behind him but his followers gathered his main ideas into  few books.  Confucius left behind 72 disciples who continued spreading his idea,, Moreover they wrote his basic concepts in  Classics of Poetry, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, Spring and Autumn Annals, Great Learning, Mencius and Analects.

2013-06-21 11.05.44
Confucius temple Beijing,

During era of Han dynasty he was deified and worshipped by his followers and scholars. His idea of governing was institutionalized during Han dynasty( 206BC-220CE) when such hierarchy, family and social relations were established like he promoted. Also imperial examination of civil servants who studied his classics existed until 1905. Today Confucianism is still important in China but not in terms of empire, inferiority of women and blaming those sick or unsuccessful and keeping them in poor condition. Today Confucianism serves as idea of hierarchy, social harmony and working on your own skills and education for self-achievement and serving your society.

If you read my history articles you will see how on  his principles Chinese state and society functioned for 2000 thousand years. About role of Confucianism in modern China will be in last chapter of history.

Source:

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Confucius

Chinese ancient legends 7- Zhuge Liang, hero and strategist of 3 Kingdoms Period

Chinese ancient legends 7- Zhuge Liang, hero and strategist of 3 Kingdoms Period

This legend is about one of very glorified historical and legendary person famous for its honesty, loyalty, kindness and excellent military strategies. He is often considered as first one to apply in practice Sun Tzu military strategies.  Zhuge Liang is also a character of Chinese literature work- Romance of 3 Kingdoms.

zhuge

Lets see first about his life and later about significance and consecration.  Zhuge Liang was born in 181 in todays Shandong province. When he was very small he got orphaned. When he was 16 his uncle died too and he moved to Hubei province. While he was hardly studying he was  working as  a farmer in order to feed himself. About him have heard Liu Bei founder of Shu Han state an important warlord and figure who opposed distorted Han dynasty which was dominated by General Cao Cao. Cao Cao was misusing his post and keeping Han emperor as puppet while he governed and while corruption and famine were on rise..

zhuge game
in video game

Liu Bei personally visited Zhuge Liang in his cottage in Hubei province. Liu Bei heard a lot about intelligence and honesty of Zhuge so he decided not to invite him but to come on his own there. They met for the first time in 207 when they created so called Longzhong plan. It was a military strategy and idea of reunification of China under honest and new ruler. It included idea of capturing Xianyang and Luoyang in the northeast and replacing current Han dynasty. For such a large idea king Liu Bei needed to make closer union with another warlord and rebel King Sun Quan who later became ruler of Dong Wu. Liu Bei employed Zhuge Liang as diplomat and sent him to palace of Sun Quan. Thanks to his diplomatic skills and wisdom Zhuge Liang managed to persuade Sun Quan to accept alliance with Liu Bei. Thanks to that in 208 they severely defeated Cao Cao at Battle of Red Cliffs and thanks to that prevented Cao Caos expansion to the south. After this battle Zhuge Liang got position of Military Advisor General in todays Hunan.  Between 212-214 Zhuge Liang provided strategy and logistics for capturing of todays Sichuan province. Zhuge Liang and Liu Bei became even friends. In 223 Liu Bei died and Zhuge Liang wanted to continue to stay loyal to his family and than served his son and was friend to his son Liu Shan. They developed close friendship too and Liu Shan perceived him as his second father. He was nominated as marquis of Wu and executed function of the chancellor and soon became chancellor. He was working on reunification of China during 3 Kingdoms Period. But first he knew that unity must be in Shu Han and therefore went to the south to calm down rebellions on the south that held todays Yunnan, parts of Sichuan and Guizhou province. Campaign finished successfully and Zhuge Liang stabilized southern and southwestern borders of Shu Han. So now he was ready to advance to the north against Cao Wei but before that he decentralized economy and promoted industry and agriculture. He knew that for stable state and waging for economy must be strong. His reform was successful. It was like that because many peasants that were escaping Cao Wei during wars they inhabited todays Sichuan and parts of Yunnan. Also large number of peasants from south inhabited Sichuan. Thanks to that agriculture was spontaneously blooming in Shu Han.  Trade of silk and natural materials developed. Cooper coins were used as currency. Production of silk, salt and iron and development of transport were under control of state like in case of Han dynasty. With secure resources he initiated conquest of Cao Wei in 228  and in total conducted 5 campaigns. Most crucial battles were at Tianshui in 228 which ended in stalemate, at Jieting in 228 which finished with Zhuges failure, Chengsang battle in 229 which ended in success of Zhuge Liang, at Jianwei in 229 Zhuge Liang won, at Qishan in 231 Zhuge was defeated. At Qishan was one of biggest failures for Shu Han. Despite great strategies and highly motivated soldiers army of Cao Wei was much stronger and much larger so army of Shu Han didn’t have chance to compete successfully. But Zhuge Liang wasn’t giving up and wanted to try until his last breath to conquer Cao Wei. In 234 he initiated his last campaign and battle of Wuzhang started. He felt there seriously ill and died during stalemate. After that Shu Han forces retreated. He was buried at Dingjunshan.

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source:  

He is known as first statesman who used in practice strategies proposed by Sun Tzu in book Arts of War.  He also did a lot of innovations in warfare. Zhuge invented more advanced crossbows and started to use balloons with candles for signaling between troops. He did it first time once when he was surrounded by troops of Cao Wei and he sent signal for help. Zhuge Liang was also a good writer and poet. He liked to spend time in nature and write. Zhuge wrote Mastering Art of War and his own memoirs.

After his death legends and legends were retold about him for hundreds and even more than thousand years. Zhuge Liang was deified by Taoists. There are several temples in Sichuan devoted to Zhuge Liang where his statues are located and people come to worship him for his honesty, bravery and smartness.

Zhuge Liang is one of main characters of Romance of 3 Kingdoms a work which dates from Ming dynasty. He is there described as hero, real warrior, honest and loyal man. There are many fictional events in which Zhuge participated written in this book.

zhuge takeshi
Takeshi Kaneshiro as Zhuge Liang in movie Red Cliff 1 and 2 source; http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/art/2009/01/141_37899.html

Zhuge Liang is still popular today. He is depicted in many movies and series. Takeshi Koneshiro plays role of Zhuge Liang in 2008 movie Red Cliff. Zhuge Liang is also a character in card games, video games and comics.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dZkyL1XFQM  Song about Zhuge Liang from Serial Romance of 3 Kingdoms

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source of featured image: http://wallpapersin4k.net/wallpaper/191459

Source:

https://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/three_kingdoms/zhugeliang.htm

Chinese ancient legends 6: Guan Yu, a warrior, guardian of households and symbol of bravery!

Chinese ancient legends 6: Guan Yu, a warrior, guardian of households and symbol of bravery!

It is time for legends again. Today it is turn to speak about one legendary, brave and very famous person. It is Guan Yu. Today he is most famous as god of war,  loyalty, bravery, strength and guardian of property. He is idol for many brave people. He is worshipped widely in China. In China after Guanyin, Mi La Fo and Jade Emperor he is most popular deity widely worshipped in folk tradition, Taoism and Buddhism. He is often found in Taoist temples, rarely in Buddhist temples and often in home shrines of population which is devoted to Taoism or Buddhism. Often he is set in front of other deities in shrine as a symbol of protection and guardianship of other deities. In Chinese restaurants worldwide, in offices of companies across China ,in hotels in China, in Chinese shops there are bigger or smaller shrines there is his statue as most important one especially near entrance door of the place. It is with purpose to scare evil spirits and  energetically protect property from robbery. In history he was often worshipped as guardians by secret societies related to martial arts, by robbers. Today he is often worshipped by Chinese mafia and police as well. In Hong Kong some police stations have small shrines with his figure. He is often important hero in video games, cartoons, comics, tv series and movies.

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In one hotel where I stayed in Beijing in 2015,
in a restaurant
in a restaurant in Beijing

Guan Yu was a real person without superhuman abilities. But because his ethics, bravery, martial skills, strength and honesty he was consecrated as a deity few centuries later. He lived between cca 160 and 220CE. He was born during Han dynasty period a dynasty which ruled China between 206BC to 220CE. It was one of most prosperous Chinese dynasties thanks to Silk Road, large trade and cultural exchange between China and other countries, territorial expansion, development of Taoism, arrival of Buddhism, big technological, astronomic and medicine discoveries. Therefore it is considered as first golden age of Chinese civilization. However in during 2nd century prosperity started to decline because of too high taxes, oppressive emperors or regents, famines, corruption and nepotism. When in 189 greedy general and chancellor Cao Cao took primary power in court and controlled Emperor Xian regional governors became even more angry. They declared autonomy and rebellion against imperial court. One basis of power was formed in todays Sichuan what later became Shu Han state governed by king Liu Bei. In east there was another basis created with Sun Quan as head what later became Dong Wu. Guan Yu didn’t want unjust centralization in corrupt court with puppet emperor and joined Liu Bei. He swore there on infinite loyalty to Liu Bei and Zhang Fei an another general of Shu Han. They swore on infinite friendship and always to fight on same side. In one clash troops of Liu Bei were defeated and Guan Yu was captured by General Cao Cao. He treated him very well and he became general in Cao Cao army. Guan YU still felt obligation and friendship towards Liu Bei and Zhang Fei and wanted to return to them. He expressed big thanks to Cao Cao and decided to do one favor for him before he leaves him. In battle against General Yan Liang who was opponent to Cao Cao. During battle Guan Yu broke through enemy troops on a horse with one spear and passed through 10000 soldiers to reach general Yan Liang and killed him. As a proof that he killed Yan Liang he brought his head to Cao Cao. Afterwards he rode away on horse from Cao Cao. Cao Cao was so impressed by his loyalty and braveness and ordered his soldiers not to stop Guan Yu.

3 friends
3 friends, Guan Yu, Liu Bei and Zhang Fei http://www.meble-bogart.info/mbzcat-zhang-fei-statue.asp

Than since 190 Guan Yu served Liu Bei together with Zhang Fei. They initiated several campaigns against Cao Cao which ended successfully. In 208 large battle at Red Cliffs occurred. Guan Yu commanded naval forces and it was decisive battle between Cao Cao, Liu Bei and Sun Quan. Guan Yu bravely fought without a step back. At the end Cao Cao was severely defeated and was prevented in conquering all China. Liu Bei sent Guan Yu on many campaigns. In 219 Guan Yu was first time defeated at Fangjing. It happened because he suspected that Sun Quans troop will betray Liu Bei. Therefore he was busy with capturing food supplies of Sun Quans troops and it gave opportunity to Cao Cao to attack. During that time dispute between Sun Quan and Liu Bei appeared and they were in open war. Guan Yu with weakened forces because of battle at Fangjing were retreating in Shu Han territory at beginning of 220. On the road he heard that Jiangling ( a town of Shu Han) was conquered by Sun Quans troops. Captured people and soldiers were very well treated and Sun Quan openly made it known in order to make Guan Yus soldiers not interested to fight and surrender. But Guan Yu didn’t want to give up and started approaching Jiangling. Sun Quans troops surrounded them and set an ambush. During courageous fight almost all Gun Yu soldiers died and only he and his few officers were captured. They were executed very soon.

my guan yu
Guan Yu a guardian of my little home altar,

Guan Yu was consencrated during Sui dynasty( 581-618). During Tang and other dynasties he became main symbol and guardian of soldiers and they worshipped him for courage, success in battles and were expected to be loyal as him.

Guan Yu Tao
In Taoist temple, http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Guan_Yu

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http://www.livescience.com/43681-guan-yu.html

Chinese legends 5- Legend of Laughing Buddha, a deity of luck, fertility and wealth or Maitreya Buddha

Chinese legends 5- Legend of Laughing Buddha, a deity of luck, fertility and wealth or Maitreya Buddha

In world known as Fat or Happy Buddha in China actually known as Mi La Fo or Maitreya Buddha, but who is he?  You have probably seen his figures in most of  Chinese or Vietnamese restaurants  and feng shui shops all over the world. In China you can see his figures in most of souvenir shops, many temples, restaurants, households and some offices. He is one of most famous deity in Chinese folk beliefs, Taoist and Chan Buddhist pantheon. After Guanyin and Jade Emperor he is second most important and most widely worshipped deity in China. Except in China he is one of major deities in Korea, Japan and Vietnam.

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In a restaurant, http://www.reed.edu/luce/chapman/Authenticity.html

He was born in 9th century in China. Since childhood he was admitted to Chan Buddhist temple. His real name isn’t known but only nickname which is Budai in Chinese and Hotei in Japanese. His name is literally translated as cloth sack since he always carried one.  It is known that he was fat eccentric and very joyful man.  Budai was always smiling and with his charismatic nature he drew many people around him like magnet. He used to travel from temple to temple, from village to village and town to town mostly by walk. Wherever he appeared he brought joy, happiness, wealth, health and good fortune. His main mission was to spread happiness. People usually went as a crowd around him and especially children. In his sack he always carried a lot of sweets for children, his mouth nice words for everyone and his face a smile.  Budai believed that more you give more you receive and more happy you are. When he reached new temple or village he put his sack down and started laughing madly.  Laughter was his way of enlightenment and spreading happiness. He rarely spok.  Budai said that magic is in laughter and symbolically represented laughing at problems by special gesture. It was putting his bag down and laughing at it, bag symbolized problems which you should put down and laugh at them. Budais recipe for happiness was smiling, positive approach to solving problems, modesty, making others happy  and giving. Budai spent his life in happiness, joy, laughter, spreading happiness, compassion and modesty. When he died in 903 he wanted to be cremated. It was his wish because he secretly put a lot of fireworks in his robe in order to make people laugh one last time. When cremation started fireworks burnt and went into sky.

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In Tanzhe temple near Beijing, http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/laugh-buddha.html

In China he is considered as deity of good luck, prosperity and wealth. Also he is considered as patron of children and often is depicted with them. His big belly is symbol of happiness, fertility, prosperity, generosity and wealth.  His big years are symbol of good listener. Budai brings only precious gifts such as good fortune and children.

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He shouldn’t be confused with first Gautama Buddha or Amitabha Buddha as he isn’t same Buddha and some don’t even consider him as Buddha.  In all 3 major schools of Buddhism there is concept of Maitreya Buddha a future Buddha which will come and spread good and help people. In Theravada and Vajrayana he still didn’t appear and is depicted as slim person. Since 16th century Chan Buddhist schools of China accepted Budai as first recorded Maitreya or Mi La Fo in Chinese. Soon Japanese Zen schools of Buddhism also confirmed Budai as Mi La Fo and than schools of Korean Seon and Vietnamese Tien Buddhism did same.  He was recognized like this because of his good deeds, generosity, enligthtened peaceful mind and willingness to help. However Chan Buddhism doesn’t consider him as only Maitreya but as one of them as they consider that there were, are and will be many undiscovered Maitreyas .

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In popular TV serie

Budai about himself  and Maitreyas said-

Mi-lo, true Mi-lo

Reborn innumerable times

From time to time manifested to men

The men of the age do not recognize you http://www.newsfinder.org/site/more/hotei_pu_tai_maitreya_all_known_as_the_laughing_buddha/

In China he is considered as major deity of luck, happiness, fertility, prosperity and wealth. He is widely worshipped as popular folk religion deity. By many Chinese he is also considered as incarnation of Maitreya. Taoist schools also consider him as deity. Except in houses, restaurants, offices and shops his statues may be found in most of Buddhist temples especially in first halls. He is often in shrines of Taoist temples too. Except in China he is widely worshipped deity in Singapore, Malaysia both by Taoists and Buddhists. In Japan he is also popular deity  for followers of Zen and Shinto. In Korea he is worshipped by followers of Seon Buddhism and Korean folk religion. In Vietnam he is worshipped bz followers of Tien Buddhism and highly infeunced by Chinese, Vietnamese folk religion.

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My collection in different depictions,
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One of my favorite

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